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Introduction. This covers the contents of Chapter 1
Is the study of the structure of the body and relationship of the body’s structures to each other
Branches of Anatomy – microscopic, radiographic, embryology, gross, clinical etc.
Developmental anatomy – the changes in the body from conception until physical maturity.
Surface anatomy – form and superficial markings of the body
The chemical functions of the body including metabolism, growth and development etc.
Levels of Organization
1) Molecularà chemical = C, H, O, Na, P, K, N that comprise proteins, lipids, carbohydrates.
2) Cellularà building blocks of life (makes up the tissues of an organism)
3) Tissueà group of similar cells with similar functions. – the process of cellular specialization is called “differentiation”
4) Organsà 2 or more tissues with a specific function. (ie: heart, lungs, liver etc.)
5) Organ Systemsà related organs with a common function. (ie: cardiovascular, immune, respiratory)
6) Organismà systems working together to maintain homeostasis.
1) Integumentary – First line of defense, Sensory input, air conditioning system for homeostasis
2) Skeletal – Structure for movement, site of RBC and WBC production, buffering for homeostasis
3) Muscular – Movement, body heat for homeostasis
4) Cardiovascular – Movement of essential molecules to and from the cells for homeostasis
5) Respiratory – oxygen intake, C02 expiration, buffer system for homeostasis
6) Nervous – control system for homeostasis
7) Digestive – intake of nutrients for homeostasis
8) Urinary – Maintains blood concentrations, pH, ions and uric acid for homeostasis
9) Endocrine – long term control of metabolic activities for homeostasis
10) Immune – protection system of the body
11) Reproductive – keep the species going!
Life Processes (differentiate organisms from non-living matter)
1) Metabolism - breakdown of foods
a. Catabolism breakdown of molecules that results in the release of energy.
b. Anabolism using energy to build structures and perform tasks necessary for life
c. Homeostasis when all system are functioning normally, and the internal environment of the body will be relatively stable at all levels. Cells have necessary parameters to stay alive. ie: temp, water, energy etc.
2) Responsiveness ability to detect & react to stimuli.
3) Movement both internal (food, blood, materials) or external running, etc.
4) Growth & Differentiation general to specific (growth=increase in size; differentiation=change from nonspecific to specific.
5) Reproduction - ensuring DNA lives on!
How does each of these systems contribute to homeostasis?
Anatomical landmarks (know all of them!)
Anatomical position: standing, feet facing forward, palms facing forward (anteriorly) (Above left)
Sectional Anatomical Planes
3 sectional planes - understand that any parallel plane is also the same directional plane
This is your Introductory Lesson. Please watch all videos
What you need to know: Absolutely Everything! THIS IS YOUR STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 1
Optional but helpful: How To Learn (Study)
Ask yourself two questions: What is life and What is a human being? As a scientist (not to negate that we may also be spiritual beings), we study what we can see or measure.
There are three theories which dominate biology and are the foundation to all of our knowledge about life.
Cell Theory: all living things are made of cells
Evolution: Cells come from cells! When cells divide they can adapt to environmental challenges and change. "Descent with adaptation"
Genetics: the power of DNA to survive and adapt to create millions of different organisms ensuring the survival of DNA!
The answer is that we are an organism. What is an organism? An organism is made of two or more cells and contains systems which are designed to maintain the lives of the cells within the organism. This is homeostasis. That's the whole point of systems, maintaining homeostasis.
What is a Human Being?
Human beings are composed of approximately 70 trillion cells! Holy cow!
Now, incorporating what you know about cells (that they have to live in water) how would you go about caring for 70 trillion lives?
Well, first of all you would have to break down the question. Lets say that someone gave you the job of answering this question but they first gave you the design. So you have a human outline and your job is to give it bones muscles nerves and other organs. All you have to work with are cells. How would you build it?
How will you care for the cells deeply embedded within your liver? As we go through the chapters you will understand more and more how to answer this question. After each unit, I will ask you for your best guess as to how to answer the question.
Watch the following videos and answer the questions below
Part II - Anatomical Position and Directions
How does each system contribute to homeostasis?
What are the two different metabolic processes and how do they work?
What are the three steps of homeostasis?
How are changes made to return a change in homeostasis to normal?
Why are the landmarks (which are superficial) important?
What is the importance of Medical Terminology
What are the steps of organizational levels?
What are the 11 body systems?
Why do we have these systems?
How do you know that something is alive?