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 Introduction.        This covers the contents of Chapter 1


Is the study of the structure of the body and relationship of the bodys structures to each other

Branches of Anatomy microscopic, radiographic, embryology, gross, clinical etc.

Developmental anatomy the changes in the body from conception until physical maturity.

Surface anatomy form and superficial markings of the body


  The chemical functions of the body including metabolism, growth and development etc.

 Levels of Organization

 1)      Molecular chemical = C, H, O, Na, P, K, N that comprise proteins, lipids, carbohydrates.

2)      Cellular building blocks of life (makes up the tissues of an organism)

3)      Tissue group of similar cells with similar functions. the process of cellular specialization is called      differentiation

4)      Organs 2 or more tissues with a specific function. (ie: heart, lungs, liver etc.)

5)      Organ Systems related organs with a common function. (ie: cardiovascular, immune, respiratory)

6)      Organism systems working together to maintain homeostasis. 

Organ Systems

1)      Integumentary First line of defense, Sensory input, air conditioning system for homeostasis

2)      Skeletal Structure for movement, site of RBC and WBC production, buffering for homeostasis

3)      Muscular Movement, body heat for homeostasis

4)      Cardiovascular Movement of essential molecules to and from the cells for homeostasis

5)      Respiratory oxygen intake, C02 expiration, buffer system for homeostasis

6)      Nervous control system for homeostasis

7)      Digestive intake of nutrients for homeostasis

8)      Urinary Maintains blood concentrations, pH, ions and uric acid for homeostasis

9)      Endocrine long term control of metabolic activities for homeostasis

10)  Immune protection system of the body

11)  Reproductive keep the species going!

  Life Processes (differentiate organisms from non-living matter)

1)      Metabolism - breakdown of foods

a.      Catabolism   breakdown of molecules that results in the release of energy.

b.      Anabolism  using energy to build structures and perform tasks necessary for life

c.      Homeostasis  when all system are functioning normally, and the internal environment of the body will be relatively stable at all levels. Cells have necessary parameters to stay alive.   ie: temp, water, energy etc.

2)      Responsiveness  ability to detect & react to stimuli.

3)      Movement  both internal (food, blood, materials) or external running, etc.

4)      Growth & Differentiation general to specific (growth=increase in size; differentiation=change from      nonspecific to specific.

5)      Reproduction - ensuring DNA lives on!

How does each of these systems contribute to homeostasis?

 Anatomical landmarks (know all of them!)



Anatomical position: standing, feet facing forward, palms facing forward (anteriorly) (Above left)

Anatomical Quadrants (generally used by emergency personnel and practitioners)

  • RUQ Right Upper Quadrant (rt. Lobe of liver, gall bladder, rt. Kidney, part of stomach, small & large intestine.)

  • RLQ cecum, appendix, part of the small intestine, repro organs right.

  • LUQ left Lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, and left kidney, portion of large intestine.

  • LLQ intestine, reproductive left side, sigmoid colon


 Anatomical Directions:

  • Anterior ventral; front and toward the front

  • Posterior dorsal; back and toward the back

  • Cranial cephalic; head and toward the head

  • Cauda coccyx; tail and toward the coccyx

  • Superior toward the head

  • Inferior toward the tail

  • Medial mid-line; toward the middle

  • Lateral away from the mid-line

  • Proxial close to an attachment to axial body

  • Distal away from an attachment to axial body

  • Superficial toward the surface; closer than ref.

  • Deep deeper than the reference point


 Sectional Anatomical Planes

3 sectional planes - understand that any parallel plane is also the same directional plane

  1. Transverse plane horizontal to the body, into superior and inferior parts.
  2. Frontal plane (coronal) creates anterior and posterior parts
  3. Sagittal plane cuts body parts into left and right sides.
  4. Oblique planes  self explanatory

 Body Cavities


  1. To protect the body.
  2. Permit significant changes in the size and shape of the body parts.

Dorsal Body cavityCranial and spinal (vertebral)

Ventral BC respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, urinary, reproductive (includes thoracic and abdominopelvic)

Thoracic cavityencloses the chest wall (superior to diaphragm)

  1. Pericardial cavity (heart)
  2. Mediastinal cavity (trachea, esophagus, heart vessels)
  3. Pleural cavity (lungs)
  4. Mediastinum (know all of the borders and contents!)
  5. Mediastinum video


nasal, oral, otal (ear) 


Abdominal Cavity:

  • Abdominal - inferior to diaphragm.  Contains liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, large & small intestine, kidneys.

  • Pelvic -superior border is the "pelvic inlet" and continues to the pelvic floor and contains the reproductive organs, bladder and rectum.
  • Abdominopelvic contains both of above

 Body Membranes 

  1. Protect from movement (friction of movement and to lubricate) they are composed of two layers:
    1. Parietal membranes adjacent to the body wall
    2. Visceral closest to or surrounds organs.
    1. Pleural membranes lung
    2. Pericardial membrane heart
    3. Peritoneal membrane covers abdominal & pelvis cavity.


Why is it important to know the exact definitions of the boundaries of each cavity?




This is your Introductory Lesson.  Please watch all videos

What you need to know:  Absolutely Everything! THIS IS YOUR STUDY GUIDE FOR CHAPTER 1

Optional but helpful: How To Learn (Study)

Ask yourself two questions: What is life and What is a human being?  As a scientist (not to negate that we may also be spiritual beings), we study what we can see or measure.

There are three theories which dominate biology and are the foundation to all of our knowledge about life.

Cell Theory: all living things are made of cells

Evolution: Cells come from cells!  When cells divide they can adapt to environmental challenges and change.  "Descent with adaptation"

Genetics: the power of DNA to survive and adapt to create millions of different organisms ensuring the survival of DNA!

The answer is that we are an organism.  What is an organism?  An organism is made of two or more cells and contains systems which are designed to maintain the lives of the cells within the organism.  This is homeostasis.  That's the whole point of systems, maintaining homeostasis.

What is a Human Being?

Human beings are composed of approximately 70 trillion cells!  Holy cow!

Now, incorporating what you know about cells (that they have to live in water) how would you go about caring for 70 trillion lives?

Well, first of all you would have to break down the question.  Lets say that someone gave you the job of answering this question but they first gave you the design.  So you have a human outline and your job is to give it bones muscles nerves and other organs.  All you have to work with are cells.  How would you build it?

How will you care for the cells deeply embedded within your liver?  As we go through the chapters you will understand more and more how to answer this question.  After each unit, I will ask you for your best guess as to how to answer the question.

Watch the following videos and answer the questions below

Part I

Part II - Anatomical Position and Directions

Organ Systems

How does each system contribute to homeostasis?

What are the two different metabolic processes and how do they work?

What are the three steps of homeostasis? 

How are changes made to return a change in homeostasis to normal?

Why are the landmarks (which are superficial) important?

What is the importance of Medical Terminology

What are the steps of organizational levels?

What are the 11 body systems?

Why do we have these systems?

How do you know that something is alive?